Bleeding in menopause

Menopause is a normal state for a woman’s body after a certain age, which occurs as a result of a failure of the ovarian hormonal function.  It occurs at a different time for every woman, usually around 50 years old. A typical characteristic is the lack of periodic menstruation. Menopause  is a natural physiological condition and it is usually assumed that a woman is in menopause when her menstrual cycles stop for more than a year.

Every bleeding from the genitals in women who are already in menopause, no matter how intense the bleeding is, is a serious symptom that requires diagnostics and timely consultation with a gynecology specialist. The reasons for the bleeding can be different – from atrophy of the uterine mucosa to cancer.

Necessary for an accurate diagnose are:

  • pap smear  (taking material for a histological examination of the cervix)
  • hysteroscopy (manipulation for which we use a Hysteroscope – a special system for detailed inspection of the cervix and the whole uterus on the inside)
  • abrasion test (curettage of the uterine mucosa and histological examination) – when a hysteroscopy is not possible

Possible reasons for bleeding in menopause from the uterine cervix are:

  • inflammation of the cervical canal
  • cervical polyp
  • cervical carcinoma

Possible reasons for bleeding from the uterus are:

  • endometrial atrophy
  • endometrial polyp
  • submucous myoma node
  • endometrial carcinoma
  • uterine sarcoma

The therapy is determined by the result from the pap smear and the results from the hysteroscopy or the abrasion test.